Iron and Steel

Pure iron is in white to silver (metallic gray) color and is relatively soft and it can easily be formed to various shapes. Because of its high reactivity with oxygen, iron is rarely used in pure form. One of the chief disadvantages of iron (as a key material in construction) is to be oxidized in the moisture. Furthermore, iron reveals elevated reactivity in the presence of carbon, sulfur, silicon and halides.

Two most common oxidized forms of iron are iron (II) and iron (III):

  • Chemical dyes, pharmaceutical applications and dyeing are the usual utilizing of iron (II).
  • Iron (III) is commonly utilized in magnetic devices such as tapes and hard disks.

Owing to relative softness of pure iron, it is chiefly used in alloyed form. Alloys of iron generally are combination of pure iron and carbon, in which percentage of carbon determines the final properties and characteristics of the alloy. Steels contain about 2% carbon while the carbon content in other iron alloys can exceed by four percent. Slight changes in constituents, will drive significant changes in properties, thus diversifying in iron alloys. Pig Iron, Wrought Iron, Cast Iron and Steel, are the most famous types of iron alloys.

  • Steel

Steels are one the well-known types of iron alloys that have less carbon content as compared with other iron alloys. In addition to carbon, other elements can be logically added to steels in order to improving the properties. One should be noted that thousands of different types of steels, regarding to the environment and operating circumstances are produced worldwide. In general terms, steel products can be categorized into carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels and stainless steels.

China, Japan, India and United States are the dominant producers of steels across the world, among which China with production of 809 million tons in 2015, managed to fabricate almost half of global production.

Crude steel production in Iran was reported 16 million tons in 2015, while overall capacity for steel production has been estimated 24 million tons. This extraordinary discrepancy is arisen from weaknesses in value chain of steel together with insufficient status of global economy during recent years. Nevertheless, Iran has planned to achieve steel production of 55 million tons by 2025 according to Iran’s 20-Year Perspective.

 
 

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