Coke and Coal

Coal is a hard, black and flammable rock, and utilized as solid fossil fuel. Carbon is the principle constituent of coal (65-95%), in conjunction with hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Although global concerns about pollutant emissions by coal consumption have restricted slightly this material’s consumption, but it provides 23% of energy needs in the world.

Proven reserves of coal across the world has been estimated about 978 billion tons. Having considered current global average consumption of coal, one can deduct that there are enough reserves of coal for next 114 years. United States, Russia and China possess the major coal deposits, having 237, 157 and 114 billion tons of coal, respectively.

In 2015, production of coal was 8 billion tons in overall, from which China, United States and Australia were the biggest producers, producing 3800, 907 and 644 million tons, respectively. Moreover, China consuming 1900 million tons of coal in 2015 was ranked as the top one in coal consumption.

In general, there are two main groups of coal; metallurgical coal (coke) and thermal coal. Thermal coal is crucially used for steam power plants to supply the needed power.

Coke is diversely utilized in steel industries. In order to production of coke, coal is primarily baked at temperatures between 1000 and 1100 Centigrade degrees, isolated from oxygen and eliminating any contaminants. The obtained product will be hard and porous, named as coke. To produce coke, percentage of sulfur and phosphorous compositions in coal must be very low.

Until 2015, the total proven reserves of coal in Iran has been reported almost 1.1 billion tons, of which 900 million tons is coking coal. The major amount of coal reserves (80%) have been deposited in Tabas and Kerman regions. About 100 active mines of coal were existed in 2014, which have produced 2.7 million tons of coal.

 
 

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