Ferroalloys

Ferroalloys are those alloys consisting of iron and other elements, except carbon, that provide the required circumstances for penetration of other elements into iron of steels. Alloy elements cause physical and chemical properties improvement in iron and steels (for some specific applications) and/or to reveal specific practical features during production processes (such as deoxidizing and making the desire structure, etc.). Hence ferroalloys are strongly associated with steel industry (the key end user of ferroalloys).

Ferroalloys are generally produced by one of two following methods:

  • Reduction by carbon and electrical energy in submerged arc furnaces
  • Reduction by other metals (metallothermic reactions), by silicon and aluminum in often

The main producers of ferroalloys in 2014 were China (36.8 million tons), South Africa (4.48 million tons), India (3.5 million tons), Russia (1.97 million tons) and Kazakhstan (1.56 million tons). Overall production of ferroalloys in 2014 was 57.5 million tons. The chief produced ferroalloys in 2014 were ferrochrome alloys (including ferrochrome – silicon), ferromanganese, ferrosilicon and silico-manganese, weighted 39.3 million tons.

According to Ministry of Mining and Industry of Iran, 24 companies have been acted in ferroalloys production in the beginning of 2016, which their nominal capacities have been totaled 315 thousand tons. Exportation and importation of ferroalloys in Iran have been reported as 25.4 and 87.5 thousand tons, respectively. The reasons why ferroalloys production has not been efficiently developed are Iran’s steel industry weaknesses and meeting the more Iran’s ferroalloys needs through importing them.

 
 

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